Manicouagan crater, Quebec, Canada is visible in the background. Exhumed paleoplains of the Precambrian shield of North America. American Journal of Science, , — The viscous flow behavior of diaplectic glass and fusion-formed glass: A Comparitive study on shocked anorthosite from Manicouagan crater, Canada. Diaplectic glass and fusion-formed glass: Comparative studies on shocked anorthosite from Manicouagan crater, Canada.
Young Earth Creation Science Argument Index
Zircon is ubiquitous in the crust of Earth. It occurs as a common accessory mineral in igneous rocks as primary crystallization products , in metamorphic rocks and as detrital grains in sedimentary rocks. Their average size in granite rocks is about 0. Because of their uranium and thorium content, some zircons undergo metamictization.
Connected to internal radiation damage, these processes partially disrupt the crystal structure and partly explain the highly variable properties of zircon.
The changing ratio of C to C indicates the length of time since the tree stopped absorbing carbon, i.
Outlook Other Abstract U-Pb radioisotope dating is now the absolute dating method of first choice among geochronologists, especially using the mineral zircon. A variety of analytical instruments have also now been developed using different micro-sampling techniques coupled with mass spectrometers, thus enabling wide usage of U-Pb radioisotope dating. However, problems remain in the interpretation of the measured Pb isotopic ratios to transform them into ages.
Among them is the presence of non-radiogenic Pb of unknown composition, often referred to as common or initial Pb. There is also primordial Pb that the earth acquired when it formed, its isotopic composition determined as that of troilite in the Canyon Diablo iron meteorite. Subsequently new crustal rocks formed via partial melts from the mantle. So the Pb isotope ratios measured in these rocks today must be interpreted before their U-Pb ages can be calculated. Various methods have been devised to determine this initial or common Pb, but all involve making unprovable assumptions.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters
For details of the oldest Stone Age cave art, see: Blombos Cave Rock Art. A Summary Located in northern Spain, not far from the village of Antillana del Mar in Cantabria, the Upper Paleolithic cave complex at Altamira is famous for its magnificent multi-coloured cave painting , as well as its rock engravings and drawings. It is one of seventeen such caves unearthed along the mountains of North Spain near the Atlantic coast, on the main migratory route from the Middle East, which followed the North African coast, crossed the sea at Gibraltar and led through Spain into France.
First discovered in , though not fully appreciated until the s, Altamira was the first of the great caches of prehistoric art to be discovered, and despite other exciting finds in Cantabria and southern France, Altamira’s paintings of bisons and other wild mammals are still the most vividly coloured and visually powerful examples of Paleolithic art and culture to be found on the continent of Europe. As usual, archeologists remain undecided about when Altamira’s parietal art was first created.
Certainly this is not produced by an influx from outer space.
Kanga with Prince Charles at a polo match in She was the Australian who married a peer and became a prince’s lover. But the affair broke her heart and unhinged her mind. The name is largely forgotten. The big hair, the luscious lips, and the constant partying have so faded in memory that they might never have existed. Nobody ever quite understood how she fitted into the royal jigsaw.
But, for a time, Kanga was just as important to Charles as Camilla. Yet the story of how she came to love and lose her prince has never been fully told. For the first time, a Channel 4 documentary reveals the extraordinary bed-hopping antics of the heir to the throne in the years leading up to his marriage to Diana. High Society reveals how, for a period during the s, when both women were married to friends of his, HRH bounced from the bed of Camilla to that of Lady Tryon, then back again.
While dithering over the very necessary duty of finding a suitable wife, Charles was happily having his cake and eating it. For both women were his mistress.
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Red horse head, below and to the left of the yellow horse heads. These horse heads and signs are in a small alcove, above a flat floor. Just a few lines have been used to outline more clearly the shape of a small mammoth, about 20 cm wide, taken up by the flowstone or stalagmite cascade at the entrance to the Brunel Chamber.
We conclude with a review of the biological relevance of H.
Bradshaws now called Gwion art are among the most sophicated forms of cave painting in Australia. Introduction Australian Aboriginal rock art may be the oldest Stone Age art on the planet. This possibility is supported by the studies of Professor Stephen Oppenheimer, whose research combines genetic analysis with climatology, archeology, fossil analysis and modern dating methods, in order to juxtapose early migration with early rock art , see for example his book “Out of Eden: According to Oppenheimer, modern humans first began arriving in Australia from islands across the Timor Sea during the Middle Paleolithic era, between 70, and 60, BCE.
Evidence of the ancient art if any of this first wave of aboriginal settlers is extremely scarce, but there are signs of pigment usage which suggest that they began painting almost immediately, although this might have been face or body painting rather than rock painting. In any event, human occupation in Australia has been carbon-dated to at least 53, BCE, and the oldest Australian human fossil has been dated to around 38, BCE – the difference probably being due to the drowning of the earliest coastal occupation sites by rising sea-levels: All this means that aboriginal migrants were settled in Australia some 10, years before their northern counterparts arrived in Europe.
How Old is the Earth
Has the NHS passed its sell-by date? Undoubtedly, there is a significant crisis in mental healthcare as it is underfunded proportionate to what it represents as a percentage of NHS care. However, the unfolding winter crisis has been one of emergency and hospital care.
The application of Sr isotope stratigraphy is generally limited to carbonate samples for which the Sr seawater curve is well defined.
We review the four main sections of this book starting with his first trip to Tanzania at age 24, his involvement in the H. It is interesting to read how Berger and his colleagues debated their decision to put A. The main thrust of this book seems to culminate in in the final two sections where Berger describes in detail the discovery process and the difficulties involved in excavation of H.
His initial reactions to seeing the first bones from the site are most telling, describing in several passages how similar the anatomy of the fossils was to an australopith, and unlike a human. Berger also reveals a few facts that were left out of the many papers published on H. First, he relates how he knew about the nearby second cave Lesedi Chamber containing similar fossils even while they were excavating the Dinaledi Chamber.
He also mentions that neither he nor his primary geologist P. Dirks could fit in the Dinaledi Chamber, so all field work had to be accomplished by thin, small statured scientists who could actually fit into the tight crevices of the cave. Berger also tries to justify his interpretation that living H. Berger also reported that they found no evidence of fire or smoke on the ceilings or any sign of habitability of the caves, making a deliberate disposal interpretation all the more mysterious.
Finally, Berger muddles through the convoluted dating of H. However, his reported age of between , and , years ago is not exactly what was published in a subsequent paper.
Young Earth Creation Science Argument Index The purpose of this index is to list all the claims of young earth creationists, and provide rebuttals to those claims. Although the idea for this index came from the TalkOrigins. Many arguments will have additional arguments against the young earth claims which do not appear on the Talk Origins site.
Either the polonium was created primordial, not derived from uranium , or there have been radical changes in decay rates in the past.
Example[ edit ] For example, consider the case of an igneous rock such as a granite that contains several major Sr-bearing minerals including plagioclase feldspar , K-feldspar , hornblende , biotite , and muscovite. Rubidium substitutes for potassium within the lattice of minerals at a rate proportional to its concentration within the melt. The ideal scenario according to Bowen’s reaction series would see a granite melt begin crystallizing a cumulate assemblage of plagioclase and hornblende i.
This then causes orthoclase and biotite, both K rich minerals into which Rb can substitute, to precipitate. The resulting Rb-Sr ratios and Rb and Sr abundances of both the whole rocks and their component minerals will be markedly different. This, thus, allows a different rate of radiogenic Sr to evolve in the separate rocks and their component minerals as time progresses.
Calculating the age[ edit ] The age of a sample is determined by analysing several minerals within the sample. If these form a straight line then the samples are consistent, and the age probably reliable. The slope of the line dictates the age of the sample.
Çatalhöyük ‘Map’ Mural May Depict Volcanic Eruption 8,900 Years Ago
Anthropologist group suggests first humans to the Americas arrived via the kelp highway November 3, by Bob Yirka, Phys. Higher sea levels make finding direct evidence difficult. In their paper, they scrap the conventional view that Clovis people making their way across a Bering land bridge were the first to arrive in the Americas—more recent evidence suggests others arrived far earlier, likely using boats to travel just offshore.
As the authors note, for most of the last century, the accepted theory of humans’ first arrival was via the land bridge in what is now the Bering Strait—at the time, sea levels would have been much lower. Those early settlers, named the Clovis people, were theorized to have traveled down a central ice-free corridor into what is now the U.
So one sees that there is a tremendous potential for age increases in this way.
See this page in: Hungarian , Russian , Spanish People who ask about carbon 14C dating usually want to know about the radiometric  dating methods that are claimed to give millions and billions of years—carbon dating can only give thousands of years. People wonder how millions of years could be squeezed into the biblical account of history.
Clearly, such huge time periods cannot be fitted into the Bible without compromising what the Bible says about the goodness of God and the origin of sin, death and suffering —the reason Jesus came into the world See Six Days? Christians , by definition, take the statements of Jesus Christ seriously. This only makes sense with a time-line beginning with the creation week thousands of years ago.
How accurate are Carbon-14 and other radioactive dating methods?
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.
We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous.
In fact, if a rock can absorb only a ten millionth part of argon, that should be enough to raise its K-Ar age to over million years, assuming an average amounts of potassium.
But, carbon dating can’t be used to date either rocks or fossils. It is only useful for once-living things which still contain carbon, like flesh or bone or wood. Rocks and fossils, consisting only of inorganic minerals, cannot be dated by this scheme. Carbon normally occurs as Carbon , but radioactive Carbon may sometimes be formed in the outer atmosphere as Nitrogen undergoes cosmic ray bombardment. The resulting C is unstable and decays back to N with a measured half-life of approximately 5, years.
Thus the ratio of stable C to unstable C , which is known in today’s open environment, changes over time in an isolated specimen. Consider the dating of a piece of wood. As long as the tree lives, it absorbs carbon from the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide, both C and C Once the tree dies, it ceases to take in new carbon, and any C present begins to decay.
The changing ratio of C to C indicates the length of time since the tree stopped absorbing carbon, i.
Anthropologist group suggests first humans to the Americas arrived via the kelp highway
These are K-Ar data obtained on glauconite, a potassium-bearing clay mineral that forms in some marine sediment. Woodmorappe fails to mention, however, that these data were obtained as part of a controlled experiment to test, on samples of known age, the applicability of the K-Ar method to glauconite and to illite, another clay mineral.
He also neglects to mention that most of the 89 K-Ar ages reported in their study agree very well with the expected ages.
And again, no stone tools or artifacts or signs of fire were found anywhere.